Tips On Getting The Best Deals Available On A Las Vegas Package

Tips On Getting The Best Deals Available On A Las Vegas Package

If you a planning a Las Vegas package then here are some ways to make the most of your trip. Take this opportunity to enjoy as many of the perks offered in a package deal as you possibly can. Many Package trips have the airfare included in the price and they usually have other extras such as meals included or free tickets to your favorite shows.

If you’re on a package trip to Las Vegas then you may even get some cash back to spend in the casino of the hotel. You may be lucky enough to stay in a hotel that offers daily spa treatments as part of the deal.

You’ll probably find there is a lot of choice once you start looking for a Las Vegas package. Is this an annual vacation, or are you celebrating a birthday, or do you want that special someone to have the time of his or her life. Maybe you want an exciting Las Vegas wedding filled with romance and all the things that will make it the trip of a lifetime.

Check out the golfing deals if you’re thinking of a package for yourself and your golfing buddies. No matter the reasons for visiting the desert state you’re sure to get the deal that is best suited to your needs.

Sometimes people book a week-end getaway and regard taking many breaks through out the year as a way of spreading their vacation time rather than taking it vacation all at once. 3-day weekend Las Vegas packages are becoming more and more popular as people are looking for greater relaxation at the end of a grueling week.

You can get package trips that are especially geared towards these 3-day weekend getaways. And you may still get some really good deals that include free tickets to local attractions, discounts on the hotel for booking in advance or other money saving advantages.

If you are looking for perfect Las Vegas package, you may want to do a bit of homework to ensure that you are getting the best deal for your needs. Make a list of the things you might expect from a good Las Vegas package – don’t forget to see if there are any extras for special occasion trips such as a birthday or a wedding, or maybe even just a trip with the guys. The first point of call should be your local travel agent to see what specials they might have on offer. You stand more chance of getting a great Las Vegas package the further ahead that you book.

Check out the internet, you can often find some great deals on packages, especially if they are late cancellations. You may also get a better idea of the perks offered on different packages. The internet is a great way of being able to compare the best deals all in one place. It’s also much easier to book yourself a holiday from the comfort of your own home.


When traveling to Las Vegas, make the most of the special perks that are offered on a package deal. Enjoying all that there is on offer is the best way of getting the most out of your Las Vegas package holiday.

Brooke Hayles
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Get the Help from Samsung Blue Earth in Getting the Message Across

Get the Help from Samsung Blue Earth in Getting the Message Across

As parents, we all hope for a better world for our children to live in the future. But with the concerns on global warming, fuel, water and food production shortages and other environment related concerns, it is hard to imagine what kind of world we will be leaving our children with.

An unlikely ally is the Samsung Blue Earth. Produced by the Korean company Samsung, the Blue Earth is a touch screen phone that is looking to reduce energy consumption and waste. It is made of recycled plastic derived from water bottles and comes with solar panels that allow you to recharge while using it on the go. It provides not just convenience but also savings on conventional energy consumption. Should you need to recharge after the sun has retired for the night, a wall charger that is 5 star certified as energy efficient is provided.

The interface reminds us to further save on energy by switching on eco mode to dim the back lights when the phone is on standby. It is easily accessible at the home screen. It also comes in recyclable packaging materials that also use bio-derived soybean oil as ink for printing.

Child Friendly

If you would really have to give your child a mobile phone, despite warnings of its ill-effects on children’s sleeping habits, social behavior and over-all health, the Samsung Blue Earth is the best choice. This mobile phone, including the charger, is free of harmful and toxic substances such as Beryllium, Phthalate and Brominated Flame Retardants, that are commonly used in electronic gadgets.

But the mobile phone could not be likened to a child’s plaything. It is packed with features expected of the modern-day smart phone that goes beyond the call and text messaging functionalities. It can in fact be your phone for either personal of business use.

A Way to the Future

Industry insiders and technology researchers are saying that the future of mobile phones belongs to the touch screens. Let me also add that the best way to the future of touch screens is by the green path. Yes sir, the Samsung trailblazes the way to more sustainable electronic gadget use by tapping on renewable energy technology as a main feature of the mobile phone. We hope that other manufacturers follow the way and do it sooner. For parents like me, this is good news as I see a cleaner and more sustainable future for my children should industries behave this way.

Giving the Right Message

Efforts by mobile phone manufacturers and other technology companies are still few. But the springing out of a few green phones and technologies are definitely an improvement. Technology has often been perceived to be synonymous with waste. Electronic gadgets, including the colossal desktops, are usually left behind in favor of new shiny, sleeker and more “high-tech” models, even if they are still functional and does the job that we generally require. And energy consumption rise everytime we add another functionality into our gadgets.

It would be good to start sending out the message both to companies and the young people by patronizing items and technologies that are designed with our environment’s well-being in mind.

To see what Samsung Blue Earth contracts are available you can take a look at Moby1. They allow you to compare all the latest mobile phone deals for the Blue Earth and many other phones, and they have mobile reviews so you can learn more about a phone you may be thinking about buying.

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Getting Plastic Recycling Symbols

Getting Plastic Recycling Symbols

Plastic performs an important role in our consumer-driven lifestyle. It’s found all over – the most common material used to make things for our convenience – water bottles, appliances, packaging, etc. Have you ever inquired, for an instant, about the explanation of those symbols found in your plastic-made items?

Plastic recycling symbols denote the categories of resin utilized to synthesize the plastic. These emblems are specified in accordance to the international Plastic Coding System, and are usually delineated as a number (from 1 through 7) circumscribed by a triangle or a plain triangular loop (also known as the Mobius loop), with an acronym of the exact resin used, right below the triangle.

Here are summarized definitions of each of the 7 recycling logos universally used, today:

1 – PET or PETE (Polyethylene Terephalate Ethylene)

Light weight, low-priced, and easy to fabricate, Polyethylene Terephalate Ethylene is the most common plastic resin in use today. PET is mostly used in beverage bottles, oral hygiene bottles, and ovenable food trays. It can be reconstituted into polar fleece, fiber, carpet, etc. The necessity for this material among recyclers is quite strong, but at present, the recycling rate for this material has remained low at 20%.

2 – HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)

High Density Polyethylene is tougher and less vulnerable to chemical degeneration, this material presents a relatively low chance of seeping chemicals when used as receptacle for food and drinks. It is chiefly used as containers for common household chemicals (shampoos, detergents, etc.), engine oil bottles, milk jugs, etc. This can be recycled into dog houses, picnic tables, laundry detergent bottles, recycling containers, etc.

3 – PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride)

PVC has been recognized as a health hazard – it has been noted to consistently drain chemicals when used as containers. PVC is mainly used for piping, wire coating, cooking oil bottles, etc. It contains chlorine and will let off toxins if incinerated. PVC should be excluded in food preparation or food packaging. It can be reprocessed into mudflaps, speed bumps, binders, etc.

4 – LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene )

LDPE is the material present in tote bags, frozen food wrapping, dry cleaning bags, etc. Durable but also stretchable, it is ideal for packaging, insulation, and sealing. LDPE, through many curbside recycling programs, can be reconstituted into paneling, shipping envelopes, and floor tiles.

5 – PP (Polypropylene)

Polypropylene is most suited for hot fluid receptacles and is also used in brooms, medicine bottles, ketchup bottles, etc. PP can be reused into bins, brushes, auto battery cases, etc.

6 – PS (Polystyrene)

PS is the most common component for insulation and is used in foam products like expanded polystyrene (EPS), generically known as styrofoam. It is made into disposable food containers, meat trays, disposable cups. PS contains benzene, a cancer-causing chemical and should not be burned. It is reconstituted into insulation, vents, plant beds, etc.

7 – OTHER (Polycarbonate)

This symbol lumps materials not belonging to any of the other 6 resin groupings. OTHER may also signify a hybrid resin made up of a mishmash of those materials. It is widely found in infant milk containers, soup can liners, store signages, three-gallon water jugs, etc. It can be remanufactured into plastic planks and other made to order objects.

Not all number 7 plastics are polycarbonate, a handful are even organic. Polycarbonate has become the focus of controversy in recent years, as it is observed to leach BPA (bisphenol A), a hormonal disruptor that may may potentially alter child-bearing and fetal development.

In today’s health-mindful society, a rudimentary understanding of the materials that we allow to come into contact with our food or our skin can frequently amount to the difference between a vibrant family and a household jeopardized by unsafe chemicals and carcinogens. Even if recycling symbols are largely devised to aid staff in grouping materials (in recycling centers), recognizing these logos is gradually becoming a staple in safeguarding our own health and that of our families.

Michael Arms submits essays to the Pacebutler Recycling and Environmental blog. Pacebutler Corporation of Edmond, Oklahoma is a US cell phone trading company that pays cash for cell phones, in an online transaction. If you just want to dispose of your old cell phones in an environmentally-friendly manner, you may also recycle cell phones through Pacebutler.

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Getting Rid of the PVC Plastic That is Polluting Your Home

Getting Rid of the PVC Plastic That is Polluting Your Home

Getting Rid of the PVC Plastic That is Polluting Your Home

PVC, polyvinyl chloride, must be the most common item in our lives. There’s the plastic bag from the supermarket, plastic bottles for detergents and shampoos, plastic containers for food and even plastic toys and countless products in the home and office.Visit to here-

Unfortunately several environmental agencies and organizations warn there are many negative outcomes that arise from the frequent use of PVCs.

PVC is the second most popular plastic in the world in terms of usage Because of its wide usage the safety of PVC is much to be concerned. PVC is recognized by many environmental watchdog organizations as most dangerous.

PVC is dangerous because of the presence of dioxin. Dioxin is produced when PVC plastic is being burned up in incinerators. This can also happen at home with accidental fires with household stoves, or in vehicles or simply open-air trash burning that occurs, especially in rural areas.

The use of PVC took off in the 1960s and continue its reign as one of the most popular material, replacing metal, glass, ceramics, and woods and other materials which were once popular and less problematic especially to the environment and to our health. Eventually, the use of industrial chlorine was curtailed. However, it appears that the chloral kali industry has increased their production of chlorine-rich manufacturing, especially in parts of Asia and Latin America.

In the late 1960s, the carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride monomer was linked to humans when workers in the polyvinyl chloride polymerization section of a B.F. Goodrich plant near Louisville, Kentucky were diagnosed with liver angiosarcoma, a rare disease. Since then, studies of PVC workers in UK, Australia, Italy and Germany have all associated certain types of occupational cancers with exposure to vinyl chloride. This link has been confirmed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.

In recent years, the largest use of PVC is in building materials, including doors, walls, cables, window frames, wastewater pipes, vinyl floor, vinyl wallpaper, shower curtains and window blinds. PVC in all its forms continues to be a major part of the average American household.

Though PVCs are no longer found in most industrial settings, they are still used to make everyday consumer goods such as records, credit cards, furniture, folders, binders, pens and toys They are also used in wiring and imitation leather. Visit to Fittings Pipe Tips.

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Getting Use to New Phylosophy of Sustainable System Design- the Cae of Ship and Ocean Magnify

Getting Use to New Phylosophy of Sustainable System Design- the Cae of Ship and Ocean Magnify

In human civilization to industrial from Stone Age, then computer to information and multimedia innovative technological age, it has just been about building and forgetting things around us including environment. Today human sensitivity is aggressively defining age as an age of sensitivity and for safety and environment. Every thing we have been building for years during transition in those ages have been built with ignorance, oblivion or lack of consciousness to the environment or simply as a result of oblivion that they are part of us. The term “environmental issues” usually implies one of two interpretations: 1) Wind, waves, tides, sediment characteristics and/or other environmental factors involved in Channel design and usage, 2) Environmental protection in the sense of reducing the negative impact on water quality or aquatic and coastal habitat quality. In the first sense of the term, all concern need to agree that methods for predicting and reporting environmental conditions have greatly improved and this should be able to give us direction as long as we are ready to connect the dots.

2.0 Introduction

In shipping and associated industries, ship protection and marine pollution are respectively interlink in term of safety and environment, conventionally ship safety is being deal with as its occurrence result to environmental problem. Ship Pollution seem to be very small, especially considering emission, but today culmination of oversight regarding emission seem to be back – firing against us from ozone layer depletion to the incessant flooding and more seem to be on the way if we don’t question or caution ourselves, again, shipping is not left behind in this, in fact, it seem to be the most to get hit by next big environmental revolt. Pollutions is about accident and accident it, about because, the later is the cause of the former. Sequel with this, this paper will address environmental impacts to ship design with respect to human, safety, ship reliability, channel, and maneuverability factors and everything that surround us and ship. And of course ship design consideration that needs to be incorporated in the ship design and the design process regarding these enumerated factors.

In respect to the above, current situation, will be examined, policy, demand, mitigation and way to move forward will be addressed. Emphasize on importance of simulation, risk assessment of restricted channel and new generation or class of larger ships that coming to market including the need to introduce maritime environment awareness in maritime curriculum by laying emphasize to simulation of real and fictitious ships. Need to incorporate as much of cybernetic technology in navigational and maritime operations and finally actionable navigation, marine environment mitigation measure, recommendation for improving the safety of navigation and protection of the marine environment by enhancing cost effective state of art sustainable of ship that has great controllability in extreme whether and restricted water areas.

Likewise, for many years, less attention has been given to ship life cycle, material properties, and frequency matching with the environment has resulted to corrosion. Also ship scraping, and what happen to the environment after ship scraping, yes a lot of recycling, but little or no attention is given to the residual material that find their ways to pollute the clean beautiful sea. Other areas of concern are channel design criteria ships, controllability in dredged channels, and ?ship maneuverability as a consideration in the Design Process. All in all, preventive and control incorporating sensible measures in ship design can only optimize method and give us confidence on our environment. Focal areas that are will need revolutionary changes in ship design that will be identified in this paper are:

1. Material selection to withstand structural, weight, economical lifecycle anticorrosion and fouling

2. Incorporating ship simulation at early stage of ship design

3. Structural scantly to withstand structural function, reliability, integrity, weight, economical lifecycle

4. Incorporation maneuvering ship simulation at early stage of design iteration

5. Incorporate new close loop environmental disposal technology system to make new ships environmental safe.

3.0 Environmental issue – a blessing in disguise

The million dollar answer is that whether we start in order to make clean ships, the optimal choice we have is to design shipboard pollution control system that will allow us to treat or process all ship waste on board or allow us to incorporate or integrating such system in existing ship. Most especially, incorporating such system in earlier ship design process through forming basic concept to set aside enough space on board and make the most of the overall design of scalable and efficient .Yes, we need to design system that will allow us to destroyed waste on board the ship and those that not be destroyed will be treated so that discharge. Due to advert environmental causality and impact of recent days, sensitivity has caused serious policy and more will follow, already we have deadline for some. If we don’t do this now, what we will see are similitude of : Inconvenience of discharge regulation;More MARPOL special discharge areas ;Augmentation of Confusion caused by waste signature – advert of floating of debris

Now, considering the beneficent part of this contemporary issue, environmentally sound ship- self-contained and independent of shore facilities for shipboard waste management will end up reducing logistic requirement and costs.Time has already seen how ineconomy and inconvenience it is for ships pumping liquid waste to pier side reception facilities, offload solid waste and excess hazardous material for disposal – vessel are astronomically being charge substantial costs by private contractors to disposed these generated wastes, beside this, who don’t like good names, good names is attached to being responsible, and be among the clean ship in port state control report to IMO. With this, green ship will nonetheless give the following beneficial business advantages to clean ships:

* They will be significant ship of tomorrow; they will be the ship with good pride and public image that will provide leadership definition to shipping companies of tomorrow.

* They will be safer, environmental friendly, everything around them including marine recourses will be safe

* They will maintain good relationship with legislation and environmental agencies hence minimizes the risk of fines and litigation.

* Helps control operational pollution, minimizing the risk of an environmental incident.

* Enables companies to demonstrate a proactive approach to environmental protection.

* Helps companies to gain recognition of investment in pollution control technology.

* Improves operational efficiency will Provides confidence that environmental risk is being managed effectively. High levels of environmental performance can create competitive advantage

Today, environmentally conscious world there is already so mush pressure on ship-owners to minimize the impact of their operations on the environment. And again more are coming, luckily we are in an age of Innovation and development in this information and technological age has involved activities in relation to speed, safety, reliability, miniaturization, cost, mobility and networking in most industries this is the poweress of human civilization, we have the technology it is matte of exercising more creativity witting our limited time to manipulate our system to in order o come up with sustainable system.

4.0 Why environmental issue become a hot issue

Over the last decade, each passing years has been augmented concerned about issue of environment importance in design, construction, operation and beneficial disposal of marine articraft .the overriding force is increasing the resources of the planet that we live and that only a few are renewable. This accumulated to production that has elements of long-term sustainability of the earth. Precipitated effect over the year has call for public awareness and translated into impact through these two main manners:

Commercial forces: where company that or product that operate in unenvironmental friendly way, people are prone to spurn the companies products and service, there fore having impact on company return on investment.

Regulations: public pressure on governmental and non-governmental organization regulation due to untold stories of disaster and impact, the public is very concerned and in need of fact that if the quality of life of people enjoy is to be sustained, for them and the future generation then the environment must be protected. conspicuous issue, expertise and finding of regulations make them to go extra length on unseen issue, contrasting between the two, while commercial force act on hat will be forth problems.

Ship Concept design is very important in shipping and it account for 80 percent of failure, therefore compliance and making of optimal design has a great impact in ship whole life cycle. The impact of environment in ship design is very difficult because of large numbers of uncertainties. Environmental impact hat need to be taken into considerations in concept design can be classified into the following:

Construction -Energy and pollution – these come into picture when multidirectional thinking give wisdom on what happen during transportation, mining, rolling of material that will be used.

Operations: considering limiting life cycle of ships at estimate of 20 years, issues relating to the following are equally not easy to quantify in design work, even thus a lot of research effort has been set on move on this, but the call of the day require allowable clearance and solution to be given to the following: Known emission, Accidental, Ballast waste, Coating.

Disposal: issue of disposal that cover waste and emission and as well as what to do with the ship at the end of her life cycle.

5.0 Major impact areas

Environmental protection shall be considered a design constraint when evaluating cost, schedule, and performance of systems under development and for product improvement of those that have been deployed. The cognizant engineer shall consider the environmental impact of proposed actions, and a mitigation plan developed where required to supports unrestricted operations by developing, producing, installing, and managing all shipboard equipment, systems, and procedures to reduce and manage shipboard wastes in compliance with existing and anticipated environmental restrictions worldwide without jeopardizing ship mission, survivability, or habitability.

5.1 Sequel to the above we can deduce that these major effects from ships environmental impacts are:

· Intentional and unintentional discharge (oil, garbage, antifouling paint, air emission, on indigenous species from ballast water

· Environmental damage and pollution due to port activities

· Disturbance of marine environmental (collision and noise)

* Emission from scraping of ships at the end of their life cycle

Risk associated with environmental issue n ship and in ship designing is:

1. Accidental risk – marine accident that could result to oil spills which then, end up degrading our environment GESAMP reported that 400-300 thousands of oil entered the world ocean (GEASMP, 1993), collision with marine mammal, which then cause propeller injuries

2. Operational risks-socio economic impacts to marine ecology, habitat, and coastal infrastructures are affected though operational activities that result to oil spill, emission, ballast water, garbage, contamination, antifouling and dredging activities.

In addition to this according to RINA Publication, the table shows typical 100 years ITH standards measurements of global warming potential for a substance are shown in table1

5.2 Impact -vessel, channel and maneuverability- in the context of ship design the impacts areas are: Shipping Trends, Channel Design Criteria, Ship Maneuverability, Ship Controllability, and Use of Simulators in Channel Studies. Since world II many nations built port but forget about maintaining them while shipyard continues to build larger ships. Physical dimension and ratio of ships to channel has got impact in today’s ship controllability design are:

1. Ships’ increase ship beam expansion where as channel width is not, Length/beam (L/B) ratio

2. Radius of turns and turning areas-Radius of turns is directly related to navigation safety and protection of the marine environment, large rudder angles are needed to navigate small radius turns Rudder size;

3. Power/tonnage ratio;

4. Minimum bare steerage speed; and Windage

6. International maritime organization

6.1 Policies and procedures build-up –Pollution/ Emission prevention and control

International convention for the prevention of pollution from ships (MARPOL) 1973, It covers accidental and operational oil pollution as well as pollution by chemicals, goods in packaged form, sewage, garbage and air pollution I was modified by the protocol on of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78), MARPOL cover:

o Annex I- oil

o Annex II-noxious liquid chemicals

o Annex III- Harmful Goods (package)

o Annex III-sewage

o Annex IV- emission and air pollution (Sox, Nox and green house gas, emission of ozone depletion gas (ODG))

New coming annex to MARPOL –Talk is going on passing new annex that will cover:

· Control and management of ballast water to minimize transfer of harmful foreign species

· Global prohibition of TBT in antifouling coating 0- phase out scheduled for 2008

Marine environmental protection committee (MEPC) – IMO technical committee forming subcommittee on specific issue to implement regulation towards necessary mitigation

International convention on oil pollution, Response and cooperation (OPRC)- 1990 – policy to combating major incidents or threats of marine pollution through port state control to prevent mitigates or eliminates danger to its coastline from a maritime casualty. Annex protocol under this convention (HNS Protocol) covers marine pollution by hazardous and noxious substances.

Classification societies- Classification society are aggressively building service on Environment Protection notation, and various performance indicator to get all concern committed to running an environmentally sound ships.

Lloyds- Lloyds through risk assessment holistic method has defined the following effects as clean ship the benchmark standard. As Lloyd put it “These will help you gain recognition for your additional investment in specific aspects of pollution control. Using the Rules as a framework our surveyors and environmental specialists can work with you to tailor environmental protection solutions to your specific needs”

Dnv -DnV has equally lunched EMBLA database integrated project hat will manage discharge of ballast water.

European Union – Recently the union has embarked on multinational project call MARTOB ballast water

Montreal Protocol -Some 110 governments attended the (9th Meeting of the Parties) of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, September 1997 where several important decisions were reached, including the tightening of restrictions on several destructive chemicals.

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Green House Gasses: a Bad Bunch Really or Just Getting a Bad Rap?

Green House Gasses: a Bad Bunch Really or Just Getting a Bad Rap?

There seems to be a huge public outcry about the greenhouse gases and varied perceptions among general public and the environmental groups. However, before we attempt to evaluate the merits of “greenhouse gases”, let’s first clarify as to why these gases are called greenhouse gases.  The term “greenhouse” as we know it, is associated with an enclosure where the atmosphere is maintained under favorable conditions. Greenhouses are generally used for growing certain varieties of farm plants; vegetables & flower plants when outer environmental conditions are not favorable.  The system of a greenhouse depends on blocking the free exchange of air between the atmosphere inside the greenhouse and the outside environment. This structure generally made of glass panels or clear plastic material blocks or delays the normal transference of heat and energy between inside and outside environments. This allows the temperature to be maintained at a lukewarm level to avoid stress or death to the vegetables from excessive outside cooling. Scientists have named the theory “greenhouse effect” after the functional property of the greenhouse structure.

To further expand on this theory, greenhouse effect is an atmospheric heating phenomenon, caused on one hand, by short-wave solar radiation being transmitted inward through the earth’s atmosphere.  On the other hand, longer-wavelength heat radiation slowly transmitted outward, owing to its absorption by atmospheric gases. These gases; carbon dioxide, water vapor, ozone, nitrous oxide, methane, and others have been labeled by scientists as the greenhouse gases. Some of these are naturally present in the atmosphere and some are produced by human activity. Greenhouse gases that occur naturally are; Water vapors, Carbon dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxide and Ozone. Other categories of greenhouse gases like Hydroflorocarbons (HFCs), Perflorocarbons (PFCs) and Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) result exclusively from human industrial processes and released in the atmosphere in varied volumes on daily basis.

 Although greenhouse gases make up only about 1 percent of the Earth’s atmosphere, they regulate our climate by trapping heat and holding it in a kind of warm-air blanket that surrounds the planet. Without this “warm air blanket”, planet earth would have become a frozen planet, essentially not suitable for any kind of life form or vegetation. However, just as the excess of any thing even the good one is some time bad; it is the excess of greenhouse gases that has become major concern for the environmental scientists. Essentially, life on earth depends on energy from the sun. About 30 percent of the sunlight that beams toward Earth is deflected by the outer atmosphere and scattered back into the space. The rest reaches the planet earth’s surface and then slowly reflected upward again as a type of energy that scientists call “infrared radiation”. As it rises, infrared radiation is absorbed by “greenhouse gases”, which slows down its escape from the atmosphere. This is the very process that on one hand makes the Earth a livable planet, but contributes to the problem of “global warming”, on the other hand.

 Greenhouse gases vary in their ability to absorb and hold heat in the atmosphere, By the way, HFCs and PFCs; the two categories that are exclusively generated as a result of human activity are the most heat-absorbent greenhouse gases. However, there are also wide differences between naturally occurring gases as for as their heat absorbency. For example, nitrous oxide absorbs 270 times more heat per molecule than carbon dioxide, and methane absorbs 21 times more heat per molecule than carbon dioxide. Interestingly then, why scores of scientists and environmentalists are blaming carbon dioxide (CO2) for contributing to the problem of global warming? The answer lies not in its capacity to absorb the heat but in its ever increasing volume in the atmosphere.  Today more than ever before, human activity is adding significantly to the level of naturally occurring carbon dioxide. This gas is released into the atmosphere as a result of human activity on the individual level as well as through the industrial usage. Burning of solid waste, wood, oil, natural gas, coal and of course the automobile gasoline are some of the major contributing factors in this respect.  It is also important to understand that the two most heat absorbent gas families; HFCs and PFCs are getting a lot of attention by environmental groups. While these two categories have many good uses in the electronic, industrial and medical fields, they are also contributing significantly to the environmental damage when used as aerosol spray propellants and Styrofoam packaging.  Both these industrial uses are major contributors to the depletion of Ozone layer.  That in turn, causes human exposure to ultraviolet sun rays and the basis for skin cancer and other medical problems.

In summary, while greenhouse gases are the life giving bunch to planet earth and all living beings on it, the very same gases can threaten the fabric of life on this planet if we allow their volume to grow out of proportion. We will look at these gases and their properties; good and bad in more details later. We will also discuss life style changes of global citizens that can help maintain the volume of greenhouse gases at appropriate levels on the planet earth. We will talk about other interesting facts & myths surrounding greenhouse gases in an upcoming article.

Author is cofounder of Eco-Fabrik, a Southern California organic products company that supports many environmental initiatives including preservation of national forests and wild life. Eco-Fabrik is a trade member of well known organizations like, Co-Op America, Organic Trade Association and 1% for the planet. He can be contacted by visiting Organic Clothing for Sustainable Living

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Fish And Chip Stores Are Getting Into The Restaurant Franchising Market

Fish And Chip Stores Are Getting Into The Restaurant Franchising Market

That Great British institution the fish and chip shop is the latest food business to go down the route of restaurant franchising. With a history dating back more than one hundred and fifty years, the local “Chippie” continues to thrive and beat the competition for market share in the takeaway food industry. Fish and chips is quintessentially British and has played a part in UK life for longer than anyone living can care to remember. Many of us have fond childhood memories of popping down to the “Chippy” with Mum and Dad for cod and chips (wrapped in newspaper of course!) as a Friday night treat. Sprinkled with lashings of vinegar and covered with plenty of salt and tomato ketchup, they were always tastiest when eaten outside in the cold, fresh air. Who can forget little cardboard tubs filled with mushy peas, best eaten with a dollop of mint sauce stirred into them? The traditional “Chippy” always had two huge jars on the counter, one filled with gigantic pickled onions and the other with gherkins of mammoth proportions.

Today, health and safety concerns have brought an end to the newspaper wrapping, although I have heard of one restaurant franchise chain who manufacture their own hygienic “newspaper”, purely for nostalgia purposes. However, the most important commodity – the food – has not fallen foul to modern day rules and regulations. Despite all the American burger and pizza chains and fried chicken restaurant franchises which have proliferated all over the UK, fish and chips remains enduringly popular.

The average fish and chip shop turns over £150,000 a year, with many exceeding this figure. Most “Chippies” are very small businesses, with many being family run. Some, although not all, have sit down or restaurant facilities; some offer home delivery and many others will be takeaway only. The recession has adversely affected all types of businesses across the UK, with many having been forced to shut their doors. It is, however, proof of the “Chippy’s” enduring popularity that it appears to be far more resistant to the effects of the recession than many other fast food outlets. Many enjoy a loyal customer base, being at the heart of the community in their neighbourhood. The dilemma with franchising a fish and chip business is that customers do not want a huge faceless restaurant franchise operation serving average food in a plastic environment, so how can that be avoided? The answer is that success has to be based on a quality fresh product, passion, commitment and community focus. Get these pointers right and you are on to a sure winner. After all, fifteen million more portions of fish were bought last year than the previous year. A fish and chip restaurant franchise seems to have everything going for it when it comes to running a successful business.

Restaurant franchise reports

For details of our franchising reports visit our site. Thorough tips and guides included in our franchising reports.


Shirley Bassy advises on opening restaurants and has written a report on franchising

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New Product Hits & Misses With over 50000 products in the average supermarket, people don’t have the time, or the money, to test every product on the shelves and with 15000 new products every year consumers need to know what’s out there! So Phil does the testing and the tasting for you and gives the product a rating out of 100 so you know what you can expect when you try something new! SupermarketGuru does not sell the foods we review, nor receive any compensation from the manufacturers for reviewing or rating them. Phil taste-tests and judges each product based on the following 8 criteria: 1. (30 points) Taste: The most important attribute of any food. 2. (20 points) Value: Is it worth it? 3. (15 points) Health: Based off the nutritional information, is it nutritionally balanced? 4. (15 points) Ingredients: What’s in it, how natural is it? 5. (5 points) Preparation: When applicable, how accurate or good are the directions * 6. (5 points) Appearance: Is it appetizing and does it resemble its photo or description 7. (5 points) Packaging: Is it appropriate for the product and does it have any benefits such as resealability, added freshness, better storage, etc. 8. (5 Points) Sustainability: Is the packaging biodegradable, is it wasteful, is the company endeavoring to offset their carbon footprint? * products that do not have any preparation will have the full value of these points included in their total score To see more New Product Hits & Misses visit: www.supermarketguru
Video Rating: 5 / 5

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Getting Used to Sustainable System Design – the Case of Ship and Ocean

Getting Used to Sustainable System Design – the Case of Ship and Ocean

Getting used to sustainable system design – the case of ship and ocean 2

2-26-07- Getting used to sustainable system design – the case of ship and ocean 2 magnify

6.2 Policies and procedures build-up – collision preventions and control -Although ships may spend 90 – 98 percent of their operational lives underway at sea speed in deep water, it is during the mandatory beginning and end of every voyage when the risk of collisions, and groundings are highest. Ensuring the ability to maintain complete and positive control of a ship’s movement during these segments of a voyage is absolutely vital if that risk of navigation safety and protection of the marine environment is to be reduced. According to INTERTANKO’s 1996 Port and putting bigger and bigger ships (and more of them) into the same old channel:

· The design limit for trim by the stern for a tanker is 0.015L in accordance with Regulation 13 of MARPOL 73/78, Annex I. This information, which is based on tests conducted in deepwater, includes a turning circle diagram as well as tables showing time and distance to stop the vessel from full and half-speed.

· IMO Resolution A601 (15), which was adopted in 1987, contains recommendations for ensuring maneuvering information is available on board ship.

· The 1995 Seafarers’ Training, Certification and Watch keeping Code, Section A-VIII/2 part 3-1, and article 49 require the master and pilot to “exchange information regarding navigation procedures, local conditions and the ship’s characteristics.”

· A Marine Board study assessed the use of numerical simulation technology to train mariners and concluded that while modeling accuracy is sufficient for deep-water operations; modeling requires refinement to provide the accuracy needed for shallow and restricted water operations.

6.3 Ship design policy build-up -In 1971, IMO adopted Resolution A.209 (VII) establishing recommendations regarding posting maneuvering 9 Regulation II-1/29.3.2 of SOLAS requires rudder movement from 35 degree on either side to 30o on the other to occur in 28 seconds or less.

IMO approved circular MSC/Circ.389 in 1985 establish interim guidelines for estimating the maneuverability -Rudder size and effectiveness, Ability to transit at slow forward speed, Propulsion and propeller characteristics, Number of available engine reversals, Adequate horsepower for control, Extra reserve rudder angle needed to allow for ship crabbing from wind forces or moored ship suction, Visibility from bridge and bridge arrangement, Hull form squat (trim and sink age) characteristics and effect of bank forces on moorings and passing ships, Air draft, Emergency anchoring ability, Amount of tow line leads and line access.

7.0 Current Ship design practice

Existing design tools cannot, at least with any degree of reliability, be used to design a vessel and ensure it will ensure environmental reliability and adequate maneuverability in shallow or restricted waters neither can it be use to satisfy demand need by clean ships . In part this is because of the extreme on-linearity of hull and propulsion characteristics under these conditions. In general, naval architects and marine engineers are educated and equipped with knowledge, skills, and design processes that permit continuous checking and balancing of constraints and design tradeoffs of vessel capabilities as the design progresses.

The intended result of the process is the best design given the basic requirements of speed, payload, and endurance nor where the waste is going. Focus is not placed on how the channels and waterways are designed. Perhaps even more importantly, there is a general lack of understanding of the operational scenario regarding piloting of vessels in constrained waterways. Only recently has there been a real attempt to fully integrate human operational practices with vessel design. The involvement of human beings onboard vessels both extends and restricts the inherent vessel maneuvering capabilities vastly complicating the necessary methodology for assuring safe and efficient operations. Taking waste issue and restricted waterway maneuverability as an important part of ship design spiral would seem a necessary step to enabling proper tradeoffs in vessel design. The reality is that maneuverability and pollution protection is still not an important consideration in ship design of many merchant ships. The result is that design decisions that can compromise environment and collision are decided in favor of other factors. Only with consideration of the full range of ship and channel design and human factors relationships affecting maneuverability will we be able to produce an efficient and safe environmental friendly marine transportation system. Now that the new issue of environment is around, then we have to squeeze in more stuff in the spiral.

Table 1 – parameters s demand and impact

Environmental parameters

Environmental Demand

Impact areas

Ship design,

Need for longer safe life cycle

New limit definition, Correct material selection, Material technology, Quality control of safety and environment


High worker safety standards, Low energy input

Improved hull hydrodynamic,


Minimum pollution and emission, Minimum Sox, Nox and green house gas-Zero discharge

Advance Close loop process on board,Waste recycling equipment, Improve training


Zero harmful emission

Beneficial disposal

Operations waste,

Efficient maneuverability

Improve maneuverability


Maximum fuel efficiency

Engine design, use of alternative energy



Biocide free technology

Ballast water

Zero biological invasion or transfer of alien species

Segregated ballast tanks, Improved ballast water tank design, Ballast water treatment, Ballast water data base

Sea mammal


Maneuverability capability

Safer ship structure design, Improve maneuvering capability, Navigation AID, misinformation, Exchange, Reeducation


Able officer, Ship structure, Integrity

New monitoring through port sate control



Halon phase out

Wave wash of High speed

Marine craft

Zero inundation and spray ashore

Moderation of hydrodynamic force

8.0 Mitigation

8.1 Shipboard and waste emission outline –treatment and elimination – Pollution Prevention (P2) or Pollution Control-this is backbone of the thrust in achieving clean ship. Pollution Prevention Use fewer environmentally harmful substances and generate less waste on board. Pollution Control: Increase treatment, processing, or destruction of wastes on board.

The basic P2 principles follow:

Eliminating the use of environmentally harmful chemicals, such as ozone-depleting substance (ODSs), toxic antifoulant hull coatings, and other hazardous materials, may be the best approach for some potential problems.

Fig.2-Treatment and emission

Reducing the amount of waste we generate on board is often better that treating it on board: for example, reducing the amount of plastics and other packaging materials taken aboard may simplify solid and plastics-waste management? Similarly, reducing the volume of liquid wastes generated (such as graywater) may simplify onboard liquid-waste treatment.

1. For the wastes and hazardous materials that cannot be prevented, we must develop pollution-control strategies and technologies.

Other technical mitigation measures are:


* Toxic approach uses other metals such copper and zinc, or agrochemicals e.g. triazines

* Fouling release approach use physical properties of low surface energy coating cause the very weak attachment of fouling organisms. E.g. silicone based coating

* Fouling deterrence –marine organism not know for fouling like corals are use

* Mobile hull cleaning is also being use operationally

Ballast water discharge

* On board treatment – chemical (chlorination), physical treatment (Ultra violet light, heat treatment), filtration and cyclonic separation, shore base treatment is sometime being used but not common.

* Operational mitigation based on information of biological difference between coastal ocean water where ballast and ballasting is done accordingly.

Air emission

* Sulfur reduction in bunker fuel

* Nitrogen reduction to choice of propulsion system

* On board Cataleptics system like charlatanic converter, water injection, emulsion

* Operationally sped reduction and use of shore power connection has been implemented

8.2 Ship collision control and prevention outlines- Most accident are attributed to a flagrant controllability problem and the remain the classic impetus necessary to make improvements to safety and environmental protection, and we e need to do more to ensure adequate vessel maneuverability perhaps better matching of vessel, channel, and operational practices.

Ship maneuverability as major iterative element of design spiral-ship maneuverability is not considered particularly important during the design process, because Owners generally do not include maneuverability requirements as part of the design specification; Firm deep- and shallow/restricted-water maneuvering standards that can be applied during the design process should be established.

Modeling and simulation -Collection of data using dual frequency DGPS receivers and proper analysis needs to be supported to enable unlocking our understanding of restricted water operations.

9.0 Environmental technology

9.1 Recent development coalition control work -Environmental technology also become hot as issue of environment start burning, this might be a start of another evolution, as environmental technology product will start selling good.

9.1 Recent environmental performance

1. 1 Ozone safe substances- 200-Ton Air-Conditioning Plant Conversion Kit -The CG-47and DDG-51 plants have been successfully converted to the ozone-friendly refrigerant HFC-236fa conversion kit has been established by NSWCCD.

1. Solid waste – Solid-Waste Pulpers -The pulper (especially the large pulper) is the machine into which you dump tremendous quantities of paper, cardboard, or food waste. The waste mixes with seawater to form slurry, which is then discharged overboard. Studies show an immediate 100,000-to-1 dilution when discharged into the wake of a ship. Ships equipped with a pulper can dispose of their paper, cardboard, and food waste just about anywhere and at anytime—at sea including MARPOL areas.

1. Liquid waste – OWS and Bilge water Polishers: Many bilge cleaners the Navy uses today contain long-lasting emulsifying agents, which produce stable oil-in-water emulsions that shipboard OWSs cannot effectively process.

1. Shipboard Wastes and Emissions

To improve the reliability of sanitary waste system sewage transfer-pump suction and discharge gauges, naval research laboratory the ring-gauge isolator is adopting, Thermal Destruction and integrated liquid discharge system, the later is a concept where ultra filtration membrane systems would concentrate bilgewater, graywater, and sewage (as previously described); the clean effluents would be discharged; and the concentrates would be evaporated/incinerated in a thermal-destruction system.

9.2 Recent development coalition control work – A number of promising developments that exist today are:

1. Kutsuro Kijima showed a modeling approach that permitted analysis of passing situations that would help set procedural standards for safe passing.

2. IanDand reported on the development of models for ships squat that have shown very good accuracy over the years.

3. Larry Daggett described the advent of dual frequency DGPS receivers and their role in gathering full-scale ship trial data. In addition to the excellent horizontal accuracy of the normal DGPS receiver, these receivers provide vertical location with an accuracy measured in centimeters.

10.0 The future

There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain of success than to take a lead in the introduction of a new order of things because the innovation has for enemies all those have done well under the old conditions and lukewarm defenders in those who may do well under new.

Machiavelli, the prince

Recent Safety and Environmental Strategic focus on developing metrics to measure and evaluate progress. The key issues and actions are incorporated in the clean ship concept. Ships owner and operators must understand the need to include wastes stream management in mission requirement in the design stages, with the goal of ships being in compliance. Ship designer must pursue technologies to reduce or eliminate waste streams. The metrics use to monitor progress towards achieving environmentally sound ships will focus on shipboard pollution control equipment installations, specifically the planned versus actual installations. Each waste stream or environmental pollutant, equipment installations, the percentage of total installations completed versus the planned percentage, will be used as a measure of progress for that waste stream. For waste streams and contaminants for which no equipment has been approved or anticipated, the metric will born many R&D for necessary findings . We must take a lead in effectively integrating pollution prevention and safety into the design and life cycle of our ships, systems, ordnance into the execution of our processes, and into the operation. Managing the whole process is another thing; environmental management can be optimizing by incorporating the following concept in our system:

1. Goal based , risk based and holistic design approach

2. Total cost minimization concept,

3. Innovative safety and environmental strategy management and integration,

Planning for uncertainty and risk, R(P1c) = R(E1) x W(E1,P1) + R(E2) x W(E2,P1) + R(E4) x W(E4,P1)

Where: R= rating, E= environmental factor, P= Policy factor

1. Probabilistic and stochastic validation

2. Education and training

11.0 Working better by working together

Amazingly, it seem that everything is need to be integrated in order for the world to function, this sounds ironical, even thus the environment has naturally integrated everything, the same apply to maritime on issue of safety and marine environmental impact control and protection, it is important to for the main players in design (pilots, regulators, channel designers, simulator experts and ship operators),and all concerned to share experience Regarding differences in rules and among regulators, about rules that are taken too light , sensitivity of area, degrees of hazard for various ship types ,Naval architects and ship handlers alike should take the importance of importance green house and green ship issue and (and difficulty) of the passing maneuver unrestricted waters .

Environmental issue has become so sensitive because it is more or less of evidence that nature has exercise enough patience, impact has reach flash point and those who are knowledgeable about the behavior of matter and environment could sense potential of contagious chain of reaction that can lead to heavy calamity destruction and lost. Treating the issue equally required hybridizations of all the methodology we have been using- objectives and subjective, reactive and proactive, and of course newly holistic institutionalized method that compare and consider trend analysis of every elements of what we are dealing with.

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Highlights of McDonald’s progress on the road to sustainability in key areas such as nutrition and well-being, people practices, environmental responsibility and sustainability in the supply chain.

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Steel Water Bottle Options – Getting A Stainless Steel Water Bottle

Steel Water Bottle Options – Getting A Stainless Steel Water Bottle

Steel water bottle options are the best bet when it comes to buying the perfect container for you to take with you when you want to travel with liquids.  If you are looking for an alternative to plastic drinking water bottles,  consider getting a stainless steel water bottle for your drinks.  There are many varieties from which to choose when you go online to a seller who will be able to provide you with the best stainless steel water bottle options for your money. 


Using plastic bottles for your water no longer makes sense. Recent studies have come out reporting serious health issues with BPA, a hormone disrupting chemical that has existed in many plastics. Even though many manufacturers have no removed BPA, there are still many questionable chemicals in plastic. 


In addition, most people today are looking for ways to go green and do their part by helping the environment.  You can do your part by getting a stainless steel water bottle instead of using a plastic bottle since a steel bottle can be reused over and over again and you do not have the waste of tossing out single use plastic bottles.  Stainless steel bottles are also a money saver and you can save hundreds of dollars a year by not buying single use bottles.  


There are many choices for you to make when it comes to getting a stainless steel water bottle for yourself or for your family when you are looking for transportable bottles for you to carry liquids.  In addition to single wall bottles, there are insulated bottles which will keep the contents hot or cold and you can find a filter water bottle which purifies water as you drink.


When it comes to transportable bottles for carrying liquids for yourself or your children, the best choice is clearly a stainless steel water bottle that you can purchase at an online vendor who can offer the best choices when it comes to these and the best prices.  

Steel water bottle options are the best bet when it comes to buying the perfect container for you to take with you when you want to travel with liquids.  If you are looking for an alternative to plastic drinking water bottles,  consider getting a stainless steel water bottle for your drinks.  There are many varieties from which to choose when you go online to a seller who will be able to provide you with the best stainless steel water bottle options for your money. 


Using plastic bottles for your water no longer makes sense. Recent studies have come out reporting serious health issues with BPA, a hormone disrupting chemical that has existed in many plastics. Even though many manufacturers have no removed BPA, there are still many questionable chemicals in plastic. 


In addition, most people today are looking for ways to go green and do their part by helping the environment.  You can do your part by getting a stainless steel water bottle instead of using a plastic bottle since a steel bottle can be reused over and over again and you do not have the waste of tossing out single use plastic bottles.  Stainless steel bottles are also a money saver and you can save hundreds of dollars a year by not buying single use bottles.  


There are many choices for you to make when it comes to getting a stainless steel water bottle for yourself or for your family when you are looking for transportable bottles for you to carry liquids.  In addition to single wall bottles, there are insulated bottles which will keep the contents hot or cold and you can find a filter water bottle which purifies water as you drink.


When it comes to transportable bottles for carrying liquids for yourself or your children, the best choice is clearly a stainless steel water bottle that you can purchase at an online vendor who can offer the best choices when it comes to these and the best prices.  

If you are looking for transportable drinking bottles, your best bet is to use a steel water bottle.  You can get a wide selection of Stainless steel water bottle choices when you go to Eco Vessel. 

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Make yourself easily a nice translucent flower with plastic drink bottle , Percussions of the musical tape are also recycled materials , for Paddy G. Bride ART RECYCLING can be sound.

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