Getting Use to New Phylosophy of Sustainable System Design- the Cae of Ship and Ocean Magnify
In human civilization to industrial from Stone Age, then computer to information and multimedia innovative technological age, it has just been about building and forgetting things around us including environment. Today human sensitivity is aggressively defining age as an age of sensitivity and for safety and environment. Every thing we have been building for years during transition in those ages have been built with ignorance, oblivion or lack of consciousness to the environment or simply as a result of oblivion that they are part of us. The term “environmental issues” usually implies one of two interpretations: 1) Wind, waves, tides, sediment characteristics and/or other environmental factors involved in Channel design and usage, 2) Environmental protection in the sense of reducing the negative impact on water quality or aquatic and coastal habitat quality. In the first sense of the term, all concern need to agree that methods for predicting and reporting environmental conditions have greatly improved and this should be able to give us direction as long as we are ready to connect the dots.
In shipping and associated industries, ship protection and marine pollution are respectively interlink in term of safety and environment, conventionally ship safety is being deal with as its occurrence result to environmental problem. Ship Pollution seem to be very small, especially considering emission, but today culmination of oversight regarding emission seem to be back – firing against us from ozone layer depletion to the incessant flooding and more seem to be on the way if we don’t question or caution ourselves, again, shipping is not left behind in this, in fact, it seem to be the most to get hit by next big environmental revolt. Pollutions is about accident and accident it, about because, the later is the cause of the former. Sequel with this, this paper will address environmental impacts to ship design with respect to human, safety, ship reliability, channel, and maneuverability factors and everything that surround us and ship. And of course ship design consideration that needs to be incorporated in the ship design and the design process regarding these enumerated factors.
In respect to the above, current situation, will be examined, policy, demand, mitigation and way to move forward will be addressed. Emphasize on importance of simulation, risk assessment of restricted channel and new generation or class of larger ships that coming to market including the need to introduce maritime environment awareness in maritime curriculum by laying emphasize to simulation of real and fictitious ships. Need to incorporate as much of cybernetic technology in navigational and maritime operations and finally actionable navigation, marine environment mitigation measure, recommendation for improving the safety of navigation and protection of the marine environment by enhancing cost effective state of art sustainable of ship that has great controllability in extreme whether and restricted water areas.
Likewise, for many years, less attention has been given to ship life cycle, material properties, and frequency matching with the environment has resulted to corrosion. Also ship scraping, and what happen to the environment after ship scraping, yes a lot of recycling, but little or no attention is given to the residual material that find their ways to pollute the clean beautiful sea. Other areas of concern are channel design criteria ships, controllability in dredged channels, and ?ship maneuverability as a consideration in the Design Process. All in all, preventive and control incorporating sensible measures in ship design can only optimize method and give us confidence on our environment. Focal areas that are will need revolutionary changes in ship design that will be identified in this paper are:
1. Material selection to withstand structural, weight, economical lifecycle anticorrosion and fouling
2. Incorporating ship simulation at early stage of ship design
3. Structural scantly to withstand structural function, reliability, integrity, weight, economical lifecycle
4. Incorporation maneuvering ship simulation at early stage of design iteration
5. Incorporate new close loop environmental disposal technology system to make new ships environmental safe.
3.0 Environmental issue – a blessing in disguise
The million dollar answer is that whether we start in order to make clean ships, the optimal choice we have is to design shipboard pollution control system that will allow us to treat or process all ship waste on board or allow us to incorporate or integrating such system in existing ship. Most especially, incorporating such system in earlier ship design process through forming basic concept to set aside enough space on board and make the most of the overall design of scalable and efficient .Yes, we need to design system that will allow us to destroyed waste on board the ship and those that not be destroyed will be treated so that discharge. Due to advert environmental causality and impact of recent days, sensitivity has caused serious policy and more will follow, already we have deadline for some. If we don’t do this now, what we will see are similitude of : Inconvenience of discharge regulation;More MARPOL special discharge areas ;Augmentation of Confusion caused by waste signature – advert of floating of debris
Now, considering the beneficent part of this contemporary issue, environmentally sound ship- self-contained and independent of shore facilities for shipboard waste management will end up reducing logistic requirement and costs.Time has already seen how ineconomy and inconvenience it is for ships pumping liquid waste to pier side reception facilities, offload solid waste and excess hazardous material for disposal – vessel are astronomically being charge substantial costs by private contractors to disposed these generated wastes, beside this, who don’t like good names, good names is attached to being responsible, and be among the clean ship in port state control report to IMO. With this, green ship will nonetheless give the following beneficial business advantages to clean ships:
* They will be significant ship of tomorrow; they will be the ship with good pride and public image that will provide leadership definition to shipping companies of tomorrow.
* They will be safer, environmental friendly, everything around them including marine recourses will be safe
* They will maintain good relationship with legislation and environmental agencies hence minimizes the risk of fines and litigation.
* Helps control operational pollution, minimizing the risk of an environmental incident.
* Enables companies to demonstrate a proactive approach to environmental protection.
* Helps companies to gain recognition of investment in pollution control technology.
* Improves operational efficiency will Provides confidence that environmental risk is being managed effectively. High levels of environmental performance can create competitive advantage
Today, environmentally conscious world there is already so mush pressure on ship-owners to minimize the impact of their operations on the environment. And again more are coming, luckily we are in an age of Innovation and development in this information and technological age has involved activities in relation to speed, safety, reliability, miniaturization, cost, mobility and networking in most industries this is the poweress of human civilization, we have the technology it is matte of exercising more creativity witting our limited time to manipulate our system to in order o come up with sustainable system.
4.0 Why environmental issue become a hot issue
Over the last decade, each passing years has been augmented concerned about issue of environment importance in design, construction, operation and beneficial disposal of marine articraft .the overriding force is increasing the resources of the planet that we live and that only a few are renewable. This accumulated to production that has elements of long-term sustainability of the earth. Precipitated effect over the year has call for public awareness and translated into impact through these two main manners:
Commercial forces: where company that or product that operate in unenvironmental friendly way, people are prone to spurn the companies products and service, there fore having impact on company return on investment.
Regulations: public pressure on governmental and non-governmental organization regulation due to untold stories of disaster and impact, the public is very concerned and in need of fact that if the quality of life of people enjoy is to be sustained, for them and the future generation then the environment must be protected. conspicuous issue, expertise and finding of regulations make them to go extra length on unseen issue, contrasting between the two, while commercial force act on hat will be forth problems.
Ship Concept design is very important in shipping and it account for 80 percent of failure, therefore compliance and making of optimal design has a great impact in ship whole life cycle. The impact of environment in ship design is very difficult because of large numbers of uncertainties. Environmental impact hat need to be taken into considerations in concept design can be classified into the following:
Construction -Energy and pollution – these come into picture when multidirectional thinking give wisdom on what happen during transportation, mining, rolling of material that will be used.
Operations: considering limiting life cycle of ships at estimate of 20 years, issues relating to the following are equally not easy to quantify in design work, even thus a lot of research effort has been set on move on this, but the call of the day require allowable clearance and solution to be given to the following: Known emission, Accidental, Ballast waste, Coating.
Disposal: issue of disposal that cover waste and emission and as well as what to do with the ship at the end of her life cycle.
5.0 Major impact areas
Environmental protection shall be considered a design constraint when evaluating cost, schedule, and performance of systems under development and for product improvement of those that have been deployed. The cognizant engineer shall consider the environmental impact of proposed actions, and a mitigation plan developed where required to supports unrestricted operations by developing, producing, installing, and managing all shipboard equipment, systems, and procedures to reduce and manage shipboard wastes in compliance with existing and anticipated environmental restrictions worldwide without jeopardizing ship mission, survivability, or habitability.
5.1 Sequel to the above we can deduce that these major effects from ships environmental impacts are:
· Intentional and unintentional discharge (oil, garbage, antifouling paint, air emission, on indigenous species from ballast water
· Environmental damage and pollution due to port activities
· Disturbance of marine environmental (collision and noise)
* Emission from scraping of ships at the end of their life cycle
Risk associated with environmental issue n ship and in ship designing is:
1. Accidental risk – marine accident that could result to oil spills which then, end up degrading our environment GESAMP reported that 400-300 thousands of oil entered the world ocean (GEASMP, 1993), collision with marine mammal, which then cause propeller injuries
2. Operational risks-socio economic impacts to marine ecology, habitat, and coastal infrastructures are affected though operational activities that result to oil spill, emission, ballast water, garbage, contamination, antifouling and dredging activities.
In addition to this according to RINA Publication, the table shows typical 100 years ITH standards measurements of global warming potential for a substance are shown in table1
5.2 Impact -vessel, channel and maneuverability- in the context of ship design the impacts areas are: Shipping Trends, Channel Design Criteria, Ship Maneuverability, Ship Controllability, and Use of Simulators in Channel Studies. Since world II many nations built port but forget about maintaining them while shipyard continues to build larger ships. Physical dimension and ratio of ships to channel has got impact in today’s ship controllability design are:
1. Ships’ increase ship beam expansion where as channel width is not, Length/beam (L/B) ratio
2. Radius of turns and turning areas-Radius of turns is directly related to navigation safety and protection of the marine environment, large rudder angles are needed to navigate small radius turns Rudder size;
3. Power/tonnage ratio;
4. Minimum bare steerage speed; and Windage
6. International maritime organization
6.1 Policies and procedures build-up –Pollution/ Emission prevention and control
International convention for the prevention of pollution from ships (MARPOL) 1973, It covers accidental and operational oil pollution as well as pollution by chemicals, goods in packaged form, sewage, garbage and air pollution I was modified by the protocol on of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78), MARPOL cover:
o Annex I- oil
o Annex II-noxious liquid chemicals
o Annex III- Harmful Goods (package)
o Annex III-sewage
o Annex IV- emission and air pollution (Sox, Nox and green house gas, emission of ozone depletion gas (ODG))
New coming annex to MARPOL –Talk is going on passing new annex that will cover:
· Control and management of ballast water to minimize transfer of harmful foreign species
· Global prohibition of TBT in antifouling coating 0- phase out scheduled for 2008
Marine environmental protection committee (MEPC) – IMO technical committee forming subcommittee on specific issue to implement regulation towards necessary mitigation
International convention on oil pollution, Response and cooperation (OPRC)- 1990 – policy to combating major incidents or threats of marine pollution through port state control to prevent mitigates or eliminates danger to its coastline from a maritime casualty. Annex protocol under this convention (HNS Protocol) covers marine pollution by hazardous and noxious substances.
Classification societies- Classification society are aggressively building service on Environment Protection notation, and various performance indicator to get all concern committed to running an environmentally sound ships.
Lloyds- Lloyds through risk assessment holistic method has defined the following effects as clean ship the benchmark standard. As Lloyd put it “These will help you gain recognition for your additional investment in specific aspects of pollution control. Using the Rules as a framework our surveyors and environmental specialists can work with you to tailor environmental protection solutions to your specific needs”
Dnv -DnV has equally lunched EMBLA database integrated project hat will manage discharge of ballast water.
European Union – Recently the union has embarked on multinational project call MARTOB ballast water
Montreal Protocol -Some 110 governments attended the (9th Meeting of the Parties) of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, September 1997 where several important decisions were reached, including the tightening of restrictions on several destructive chemicals.