Posted by Kari Embree, Senior Digital Content Editor — Packaging Digest, 7/18/2013 12:34:49 PM
Ardagh Group has produced a new lighter weight 660mL bottle for Innis & Gunn’s Original and Rum Finish beers. In keeping with its record of continuous innovation, Innis & Gunn set Ardagh the task of producing the lightest weight bottle in its class at 360 grams, which will sit alongside a newly light weighted 330mL bottle.
Ardagh’s product design team applied its advanced computer simulation technology including finite element analysis (FEA) and prototype modelling to develop the new bottle.
Moving to lower weight glass bottles will considerably lessen the brewer’s environmental impact. The combined weight reduction—the 330mL bottle now weighs 195 grams, down from the current 245 grams—will represent a saving of 2,000 metric tonnes of CO2 over the next three years.
Celebrating 10 years in business, Scotland’s leading independent beer company can now offer a 660mL serving to its loyal band of followers across the globe. Innis & Gunn is the best-selling British bottled beer in Canada and number one bottled import ale in Sweden.
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Getting Used to Sustainable System Design – the Case of Ship and Ocean
Getting used to sustainable system design – the case of ship and ocean 2
2-26-07- Getting used to sustainable system design – the case of ship and ocean 2 magnify
6.2 Policies and procedures build-up – collision preventions and control -Although ships may spend 90 – 98 percent of their operational lives underway at sea speed in deep water, it is during the mandatory beginning and end of every voyage when the risk of collisions, and groundings are highest. Ensuring the ability to maintain complete and positive control of a ship’s movement during these segments of a voyage is absolutely vital if that risk of navigation safety and protection of the marine environment is to be reduced. According to INTERTANKO’s 1996 Port and putting bigger and bigger ships (and more of them) into the same old channel:
· The design limit for trim by the stern for a tanker is 0.015L in accordance with Regulation 13 of MARPOL 73/78, Annex I. This information, which is based on tests conducted in deepwater, includes a turning circle diagram as well as tables showing time and distance to stop the vessel from full and half-speed.
· IMO Resolution A601 (15), which was adopted in 1987, contains recommendations for ensuring maneuvering information is available on board ship.
· The 1995 Seafarers’ Training, Certification and Watch keeping Code, Section A-VIII/2 part 3-1, and article 49 require the master and pilot to “exchange information regarding navigation procedures, local conditions and the ship’s characteristics.”
· A Marine Board study assessed the use of numerical simulation technology to train mariners and concluded that while modeling accuracy is sufficient for deep-water operations; modeling requires refinement to provide the accuracy needed for shallow and restricted water operations.
6.3 Ship design policy build-up -In 1971, IMO adopted Resolution A.209 (VII) establishing recommendations regarding posting maneuvering 9 Regulation II-1/29.3.2 of SOLAS requires rudder movement from 35 degree on either side to 30o on the other to occur in 28 seconds or less.
IMO approved circular MSC/Circ.389 in 1985 establish interim guidelines for estimating the maneuverability -Rudder size and effectiveness, Ability to transit at slow forward speed, Propulsion and propeller characteristics, Number of available engine reversals, Adequate horsepower for control, Extra reserve rudder angle needed to allow for ship crabbing from wind forces or moored ship suction, Visibility from bridge and bridge arrangement, Hull form squat (trim and sink age) characteristics and effect of bank forces on moorings and passing ships, Air draft, Emergency anchoring ability, Amount of tow line leads and line access.
7.0 Current Ship design practice
Existing design tools cannot, at least with any degree of reliability, be used to design a vessel and ensure it will ensure environmental reliability and adequate maneuverability in shallow or restricted waters neither can it be use to satisfy demand need by clean ships . In part this is because of the extreme on-linearity of hull and propulsion characteristics under these conditions. In general, naval architects and marine engineers are educated and equipped with knowledge, skills, and design processes that permit continuous checking and balancing of constraints and design tradeoffs of vessel capabilities as the design progresses.
The intended result of the process is the best design given the basic requirements of speed, payload, and endurance nor where the waste is going. Focus is not placed on how the channels and waterways are designed. Perhaps even more importantly, there is a general lack of understanding of the operational scenario regarding piloting of vessels in constrained waterways. Only recently has there been a real attempt to fully integrate human operational practices with vessel design. The involvement of human beings onboard vessels both extends and restricts the inherent vessel maneuvering capabilities vastly complicating the necessary methodology for assuring safe and efficient operations. Taking waste issue and restricted waterway maneuverability as an important part of ship design spiral would seem a necessary step to enabling proper tradeoffs in vessel design. The reality is that maneuverability and pollution protection is still not an important consideration in ship design of many merchant ships. The result is that design decisions that can compromise environment and collision are decided in favor of other factors. Only with consideration of the full range of ship and channel design and human factors relationships affecting maneuverability will we be able to produce an efficient and safe environmental friendly marine transportation system. Now that the new issue of environment is around, then we have to squeeze in more stuff in the spiral.
Table 1 – parameters s demand and impact
Need for longer safe life cycle
New limit definition, Correct material selection, Material technology, Quality control of safety and environment
High worker safety standards, Low energy input
Improved hull hydrodynamic,
Minimum pollution and emission, Minimum Sox, Nox and green house gas-Zero discharge
Advance Close loop process on board,Waste recycling equipment, Improve training
Zero harmful emission
Maximum fuel efficiency
Engine design, use of alternative energy
Biocide free technology
Zero biological invasion or transfer of alien species
Segregated ballast tanks, Improved ballast water tank design, Ballast water treatment, Ballast water data base
8.1 Shipboard and waste emission outline –treatment and elimination – Pollution Prevention (P2) or Pollution Control-this is backbone of the thrust in achieving clean ship. Pollution Prevention Use fewer environmentally harmful substances and generate less waste on board. Pollution Control: Increase treatment, processing, or destruction of wastes on board.
The basic P2 principles follow:
Eliminating the use of environmentally harmful chemicals, such as ozone-depleting substance (ODSs), toxic antifoulant hull coatings, and other hazardous materials, may be the best approach for some potential problems.
Fig.2-Treatment and emission
Reducing the amount of waste we generate on board is often better that treating it on board: for example, reducing the amount of plastics and other packaging materials taken aboard may simplify solid and plastics-waste management? Similarly, reducing the volume of liquid wastes generated (such as graywater) may simplify onboard liquid-waste treatment.
1. For the wastes and hazardous materials that cannot be prevented, we must develop pollution-control strategies and technologies.
Other technical mitigation measures are:
* Toxic approach uses other metals such copper and zinc, or agrochemicals e.g. triazines
* Fouling release approach use physical properties of low surface energy coating cause the very weak attachment of fouling organisms. E.g. silicone based coating
* Fouling deterrence –marine organism not know for fouling like corals are use
* Mobile hull cleaning is also being use operationally
Ballast water discharge
* On board treatment – chemical (chlorination), physical treatment (Ultra violet light, heat treatment), filtration and cyclonic separation, shore base treatment is sometime being used but not common.
* Operational mitigation based on information of biological difference between coastal ocean water where ballast and ballasting is done accordingly.
* Sulfur reduction in bunker fuel
* Nitrogen reduction to choice of propulsion system
* On board Cataleptics system like charlatanic converter, water injection, emulsion
* Operationally sped reduction and use of shore power connection has been implemented
8.2 Ship collision control and prevention outlines- Most accident are attributed to a flagrant controllability problem and the remain the classic impetus necessary to make improvements to safety and environmental protection, and we e need to do more to ensure adequate vessel maneuverability perhaps better matching of vessel, channel, and operational practices.
Ship maneuverability as major iterative element of design spiral-ship maneuverability is not considered particularly important during the design process, because Owners generally do not include maneuverability requirements as part of the design specification; Firm deep- and shallow/restricted-water maneuvering standards that can be applied during the design process should be established.
Modeling and simulation -Collection of data using dual frequency DGPS receivers and proper analysis needs to be supported to enable unlocking our understanding of restricted water operations.
9.0 Environmental technology
9.1 Recent development coalition control work -Environmental technology also become hot as issue of environment start burning, this might be a start of another evolution, as environmental technology product will start selling good.
9.1 Recent environmental performance
1. 1 Ozone safe substances- 200-Ton Air-Conditioning Plant Conversion Kit -The CG-47and DDG-51 plants have been successfully converted to the ozone-friendly refrigerant HFC-236fa conversion kit has been established by NSWCCD.
1. Solid waste – Solid-Waste Pulpers -The pulper (especially the large pulper) is the machine into which you dump tremendous quantities of paper, cardboard, or food waste. The waste mixes with seawater to form slurry, which is then discharged overboard. Studies show an immediate 100,000-to-1 dilution when discharged into the wake of a ship. Ships equipped with a pulper can dispose of their paper, cardboard, and food waste just about anywhere and at anytime—at sea including MARPOL areas.
1. Liquid waste – OWS and Bilge water Polishers: Many bilge cleaners the Navy uses today contain long-lasting emulsifying agents, which produce stable oil-in-water emulsions that shipboard OWSs cannot effectively process.
1. Shipboard Wastes and Emissions
To improve the reliability of sanitary waste system sewage transfer-pump suction and discharge gauges, naval research laboratory the ring-gauge isolator is adopting, Thermal Destruction and integrated liquid discharge system, the later is a concept where ultra filtration membrane systems would concentrate bilgewater, graywater, and sewage (as previously described); the clean effluents would be discharged; and the concentrates would be evaporated/incinerated in a thermal-destruction system.
9.2 Recent development coalition control work – A number of promising developments that exist today are:
1. Kutsuro Kijima showed a modeling approach that permitted analysis of passing situations that would help set procedural standards for safe passing.
2. IanDand reported on the development of models for ships squat that have shown very good accuracy over the years.
3. Larry Daggett described the advent of dual frequency DGPS receivers and their role in gathering full-scale ship trial data. In addition to the excellent horizontal accuracy of the normal DGPS receiver, these receivers provide vertical location with an accuracy measured in centimeters.
10.0 The future
There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain of success than to take a lead in the introduction of a new order of things because the innovation has for enemies all those have done well under the old conditions and lukewarm defenders in those who may do well under new.
Machiavelli, the prince
Recent Safety and Environmental Strategic focus on developing metrics to measure and evaluate progress. The key issues and actions are incorporated in the clean ship concept. Ships owner and operators must understand the need to include wastes stream management in mission requirement in the design stages, with the goal of ships being in compliance. Ship designer must pursue technologies to reduce or eliminate waste streams. The metrics use to monitor progress towards achieving environmentally sound ships will focus on shipboard pollution control equipment installations, specifically the planned versus actual installations. Each waste stream or environmental pollutant, equipment installations, the percentage of total installations completed versus the planned percentage, will be used as a measure of progress for that waste stream. For waste streams and contaminants for which no equipment has been approved or anticipated, the metric will born many R&D for necessary findings . We must take a lead in effectively integrating pollution prevention and safety into the design and life cycle of our ships, systems, ordnance into the execution of our processes, and into the operation. Managing the whole process is another thing; environmental management can be optimizing by incorporating the following concept in our system:
1. Goal based , risk based and holistic design approach
2. Total cost minimization concept,
3. Innovative safety and environmental strategy management and integration,
Planning for uncertainty and risk, R(P1c) = R(E1) x W(E1,P1) + R(E2) x W(E2,P1) + R(E4) x W(E4,P1)
Amazingly, it seem that everything is need to be integrated in order for the world to function, this sounds ironical, even thus the environment has naturally integrated everything, the same apply to maritime on issue of safety and marine environmental impact control and protection, it is important to for the main players in design (pilots, regulators, channel designers, simulator experts and ship operators),and all concerned to share experience Regarding differences in rules and among regulators, about rules that are taken too light , sensitivity of area, degrees of hazard for various ship types ,Naval architects and ship handlers alike should take the importance of importance green house and green ship issue and (and difficulty) of the passing maneuver unrestricted waters .
Environmental issue has become so sensitive because it is more or less of evidence that nature has exercise enough patience, impact has reach flash point and those who are knowledgeable about the behavior of matter and environment could sense potential of contagious chain of reaction that can lead to heavy calamity destruction and lost. Treating the issue equally required hybridizations of all the methodology we have been using- objectives and subjective, reactive and proactive, and of course newly holistic institutionalized method that compare and consider trend analysis of every elements of what we are dealing with.