Recycling plastic packaging too costly: public official






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Posted by Jenni Spinner, Senior Editor — Packaging Digest, 2/1/2013 8:40:00 AM





Bale of plastic packagingThe solid waste supervisor at the Asotin County Regional Landfill says recycling plastics is costing the county about $8,000 a year and is not worth the effort.

 

Stephen L. Becker, who oversees the program, has asked the Asotin County commissioners to discontinue plastics recycling, saying it’s an economic drain and doesn’t provide a substantial environmental benefit. The commissioners plan to discuss the issue Monday.

 

“You get to the point where you have to decide how much you want to spend to recycle a commodity,” Becker said. “You have to get it to a clean enough state that it can be recycled, and there is a cost to get the product to a recycling facility in Seattle or Portland. It takes fuel and manpower, and sometimes there’s a larger environmental impact than if you just throw it away.”

 

Some commodities, such as newspapers, catalogs, phone books, cardboard, aluminum and tin cans are ideal products for the recycling process, Becker said. But he said plastic milk jugs and water bottles are not cost-effective.

 

The Asotin County Regional Landfill recycles approximately 30 tons of plastics every year. It costs $77 a ton to sort and separate the plastics that are placed in bins at four unmanned sites in the county, and the landfill is paid just more than $20 a ton for the cleaned plastics, Becker said.

It costs the landfill about $4,000 a year for labor and equipment to haul the plastics to the recycling site. The charge for garbage that is left at the sites averages $2,160 a year.

 

“Our biggest problem is people bringing non-recyclable trash to the drop-off sites,” Becker said. “We get garbage on the ground and in the container itself. We have to sort everything, and we don’t have the workforce for that.”

 

The No. 1 rule for plastics is the container’s lid must be smaller than the actual container, such as milk jugs, water bottles and soda pop containers. Egg cartons, plastic bags and foam products are not acceptable.

 

Asotin County has four drop-off recycling sites for residents to use. Rinsed milk jugs and water bottles also are accepted at Lewis Clark Recyclers and Pacific Steel and Recycling, both located in Lewiston. Plastics are not accepted in the bins operated by the city of Clarkston inside city limits.

“Some people use our recycling sites for trash disposal,” Becker said. “People who abuse the system are ruining it for the people who are doing an excellent job. They try to sneak stuff in all the time.”

 

Becker figures if the county ends plastics recycling and it winds up in the landfill, it will use less than 22 cubic yards, which is roughly one-quarter of 1 percent of available space. Solid waste at the landfill is entombed, he said, so it won’t become an environmental issue.

 

“I’d rather spend the county’s time, manpower and efforts on recycling the products I believe are most economically feasible,” Becker said.

When the proposal surfaced at this week’s Asotin County commission meeting, the commissioners voiced concerns about ending the plastics recycling program in the county. They want more information before they make a decision.

 

Source: Asotin County Regional Landfill

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Plastic versus Paper

Plastic versus Paper

In modern environmental thinking, plastic is often touted as greater evil than paper. Their deterioration periods are always mentioned to emphasize the destructive effects they have on nature and its inhabitants, mainly on us humans:

 

Comparison of deterioration periods:

orange peels – 6 mos

paper – 2 to 5 mos

plastic-coated milk carton – 5 yrs

plastic bag – 20 yrs

aluminum tin cans – 50  to 100 yrs

batteries – 100 yrs

glass bottles – 1,000,000 yrs

plastic soda bottles –   forever

 

 

Attention is also brought to the obvious shortcomings of plastic, of which 40% of all that are manufactured is used for packaging:

produces chlorofluorocarbon (CFC = ozone destroyer)

produces chemical waste

takes landfill space

is non-biodegradable

kills marine life

clogs sewer pipes, leading to stagnant, standing water and associated health hazards.

 

It is estimated that somewhere between 500 billion and one trillion plastic bags are consumed throughout the world each year.

 

 

On the other hand, paper manufacture is not without its disadvantages.

 

Compared to plastic bag production, paper bag production creates

2 times more sulfur dioxide

3 times more carbon monoxide

6 times more dust

50 times more waste

 

To cite a specific example, production of plastic cups is more efficient and cleaner than the production of paper cups.

On per ton basis:     650,000   pcs  plastic cups

uses   5,000   kgs.  steam

uses   1,800   kwh  electricity

On the other hand:  100,000   pcs. paper cups

uses 10,000   kgs.  steam

uses   6,400   kwh  electricity

 

Comparison of the energy needed to produce an original bag

plastic bag: 594 BTUs   vs.   paper bag: 2511 BTU’s

 

Comparison of the energy needed to recycle a bag once

plastic bag: 17 BTUs     vs.   paper bag  1444 BTU’s

 

Likewise, it would take approximately seven trucks to transport the same number of paper bags as can be transported by a single truck full of plastic bags, because these are so thin and lightweight.

 

As a final argument, when disposed off after use, plastics generate 14 to 28 percent of the volume of trash in general, but because much of it can be compressed, only 9 to 12 percent of the volume of waste in landfills, or around 5 percent by weight.  Paper comprises 12 percent by weight of garbage dumps, and also decomposes very little in airless landfills, just the way plastics are non-biodegradable. Modern landfills are designed in such a way that nothing biodegrades, because the waste is isolated from air and water in order to prevent groundwater contamination and air pollution.

 

Some countries have already resorted to extreme measures in efforts to contravene the plastics onslaught. Bangladesh banned plastic bags after drains blocked by bags contributed to widespread monsoon flooding. Ireland decreased plastic bag consumption by placing a consumer tax on plastic bags. Perhaps the most strict plastic bag regulation was implemented in the Indian province of Himachal Pradesh, where people caught with plastic bags are fined 00.

 

In the end, most everyone can help reduce the amount of both materials, plastic and paper, by:

investing in high-quality reusable bags to eliminate the equivalent average of 1,000 bags

reusing bags that are in the house for a myriad of other purposes or intention

keeping them always ready for use in the car, office, home, or person

not asking for them when it is really not so necessary

 

 

Professional assistance on thesis editing and dissertation editing, and proofreading services, or on how to avail of these expert services are obtainable 24/7 on the internet.

Article from articlesbase.com

Plastic lasts foerver. It never biodegrades. Yet we use it to make disposable objects that we discard after a short period of time, sometimes just minutes, or a few hours. Take action. Bring your own bags and cups. Avoid plastic bottles. Demand laws banning or taxing plastic bags and other disposables. Time to act is now!
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Pet Beverage Bottles Are One Of The Trends For Future Development

Pet Beverage Bottles Are One Of The Trends For Future Development

PET beverage packaging as the packaging aspect of food production enterprises, more than 30 years people have been exploring ways to replace Glass bottle And tin cans in the packaging materials and containers, and plastic is the best material currently available. It has the characteristics of light weight, can reduce transportation costs. But not every plastic are suitable for Food Packaging . Polyester (PET) food packaging material appears to be a rapid development. The first use of PET bottles soft drinks business in the United States Coca-Cola Company, they used to replace 1.5-liter PET bottles 1 liter glass bottles, resulting in increased sales by 27%. PET containers after the food and beverage packaging gradually become a popular “hot demand.” PET containers light weight and strong firm attracted customers by the market. There is also a big advantage of PET material that can form any shape (the applicability of good), but also can be processed into line with people’s habit of color, text and images can be Print .

PET beverage bottles are one of the trends for future development

Domestic PET bottle of mainstream products, initially limited to colas, mineral water, distilled water used in drinks like packaging container, the application of its excellent performance and reasonable price widely welcomed by users in these drinks packaging Based on the successful application of recent years has been in the heat-resistant PET bottle bottled drinks black tea, green tea, Juice And edible oil, cosmetics, medicine, pesticide and other industries to expand its applications. It is reported that in 1996 China’s production of PET bottle 3 billion in 1998 rose to 5 billion in 2000 to reach 8 billion, 9 billion in 2001, 2002, to reach 10 billion, 13 billion in 2004 to become Plastic packaging materials Largest increase variety. Particularly since 2001 with the sudden emergence of the domestic market of tea drink (tea production in 2001 reached 3,000,000 t), tea beverages 85 ~ 90 hot filling PET bottle PET bottle has become the fastest growing in recent years species. At the same time, PET aseptic cold filling bottle the trend of the rise in Japan and other countries, cause for concern. Aseptic cold filling PET bottle technology will reduce the number of applications the importance of hot-fill PET bottles, PET bottles to increase non-heat-resistant PET bottle production in the whole of GDP. Mentioned earlier non- Carbonated beverages Fruit juice, vegetable juice, various flavors of tea drinks, dairy products, coffee, etc., the traditional hot filling perfusion techniques are used, but this technology PET bottles require a higher (must use high-temperature hot-fill PET bottles ), it was reported that Japan already has one-third of non-carbonated beverages using aseptic cold filling technology, therefore, that the future development of PET beverage bottles are one of the trends. A report said the new nutrient-based drinks and flavors added products can help revitalize the stagnant special drink bottled water market, and PET resin and PET bottle suppliers to bring new opportunities.

Recession in the global economy environment, the 2009 pairs of plastic food and beverage packaging industry in China will no doubt be a cold winter, but the ability of PET bottle industry is expected to warm more than other plastic packaging industry stronger. This is mainly the Chinese beverage market in recent years, especially fruit juice and tea drinks market growing rapidly. As the most mainstream of the current beverage packaging materials will also benefit from this PET bottle, so, PET bottles will have greater market opportunities.

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Labthink Introduces New Beer PET Bottle Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Permeation Testing Instrument

Labthink Introduces New Beer PET Bottle Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Permeation Testing Instrument

Labthink?www.labthink.cn?has newly developed beer PET bottle carbon Dioxide CO2 permeation testing instrument, PERME G2/130 Differential Pressure Package Gas Permeation Testing Instruments,  to test carbon dioxide permeation rate for beverage industry. This testing instrument can rapidly test the carbon dioxide permeation rate so as to bring forward evidences for beer shelf life confirmation.

Besides, this Labthink PERME G2/130 Differential Pressure Package Gas Permeation Testing Instruments can be widely applied in gas permeation testing of plastic, metal, glass and other finished packages. The test gases include air, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The finished packages include various bottles, punches, boxes, cans and barrels, as beverage bottles, tin cans, milk bag & box, oil containers and other metal/non-metal packages.

 

Specifications:

Testing Range: 0.0001?100ml/pkg·day

Specimen Range: 1, 2 or 3

Humidity: closed mode: 100%RH?0%RH?2%RH?98.5%RH

         Open mode: ambient temperature

Testing Gases: Oxygen, Nitrogen or carbon dioxide

Air Source Pressure: 0.4MPa?0.6 MPa

Specimen Size: Closed mode: max. out diameter is less than ?114mm, height is less than 360 mm; min. inner diameter of bottle mouth is 8mm; max. out diameter is less than 50mm (also customization)

Open mode: max. size is no less than?195mm

Dimensions: 670 mm?L?× 490 mm?B?× 653 mm?H?

 

PERME is one of the product brands of Labthink Instruments CO., Ltd.

 

Labthink Instruments Co., Ltd.

No. 144 Wuyingshan Road, Jinan 250031, China

Tracy Bao  info@labthink.cn

Tel: 0086 531 85061153  fax:0086 531 85812140

 

Labthink, the excellent provider of testing instruments and testing services, is devoted to provide most excellent and complete quality control solutions for pharmaceutical, foodstuff, cosmetics, packaging, printing, adhesive, automotive, petrochemistry, environment, biology, new energy, construction, aviation and electronic industries worldwide.

Labthink is devoted to share excellent quality testing and control techniques with global clients and is known for wide coverage of international testing standards. Labthink participates in the drafting of several important standards of food, pharmaceutical and packaging industries, and is the excellent partner of national certification institutes.

Labthink has also established cooperation with IGT, Rycobel, Metrotec, Chilton, Moroka and other renowned distributors to provide attentive and prompt technical services for her customers in more than 40 countries and regions.

Labthink aims at creating satisfactory value and professional services for her customers.

Labthink, think for you only!

Labthink, the excellent provider of testing instruments and testing services, is devoted to provide most excellent and complete quality control solutions for pharmaceutical, foodstuff, cosmetics, packaging, printing, adhesive, automotive, petrochemistry, environment, biology, new energy, construction, aviation and electronic industries worldwide.

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Labthink Introduces New Soda PET Bottle Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Permeation Tester

Labthink Introduces New Soda PET Bottle Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Permeation Tester

  Labthink has newly developed soda PET bottle carbon dioxide (CO2) permeation tester, PERME G2/130 Differential Pressure Package Gas Permeation Tester, to test carbon dioxide permeation rate for beverage industry. This tester can test the carbon dioxide permeation rate rapidly so as to bring forward evidences for soda shelf life confirmation.

  Besides, this Labthink PERME G2/130 Differential Pressure Package Gas Permeation Tester can be widely applied in gas permeation testing of plastic, metal, glass and other finished packages. The test gases include air, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The finished packages include various bottles, punches, boxes, cans and barrels, such as beverage bottles, tin cans, milk bag & box, oil containers and other metal/non-metal packages.

Specifications:

Testing Range: 0.0001?100ml/pkg·day

Specimen Range: 1, 2 or 3

Humidity: closed mode: 100%RH, 0%RH, 2%RH?98.5%RH

         Open mode: ambient temperature

Testing Gases: Oxygen, Nitrogen or carbon dioxide

Air Source Pressure: 0.4MPa?0.6 MPa

Specimen Size: Closed mode: max. out diameter is less than ?114mm, height is less than 360 mm; min. inner diameter of bottle mouth is 8mm; max. out diameter is less than 50mm (also customization)

Open mode: max. size is no less than?195mm

Dimensions: 670 mm(L)× 490 mm(B)× 653 mm(H)

 

PERME is one of the product brands of Labthink Instruments CO., Ltd.

  Further information please feel free to contact Shirley Wu via trade2@labthink.cn, skype:shirley-labthink, MSN:shirleywu_labthink@hotmail.com or (tel)0086-531-85068709.

About Labthink:

Labthink, the excellent provider of testing instruments and testing services, is devoted to provide most excellent and complete quality control solutions for pharmaceutical, foodstuff, cosmetics, packaging, printing, adhesive, automotive, petrochemistry, environment, biology, new energy, construction, aviation and electronic industries worldwide.

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Labthink Introduces New Beer PET Bottle Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Permeation Instrument

Labthink Introduces New Beer PET Bottle Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Permeation Instrument

  Labthink has newly developed beer PET bottle carbon Dioxide CO2 permeation testing instrument, PERME G2/130 Differential Pressure Package Gas Permeation Testing Instruments,  to test carbon dioxide permeation rate for beverage industry. This testing instrument can rapidly test the carbon dioxide permeation rate so as to bring forward evidences for beer shelf life confirmation.

  Besides, this Labthink PERME G2/130 Differential Pressure Package Gas Permeation Testing Instruments can be widely applied in gas permeation testing of plastic, metal, glass and other finished packages. The test gases include air, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The finished packages include various bottles, punches, boxes, cans and barrels, as beverage bottles, tin cans, milk bag & box, oil containers and other metal/non-metal packages.

 

Specifications:

Testing Range: 0.0001?100ml/pkg•day

Specimen Range: 1, 2 or 3

Humidity: closed mode: 100%RH, 0%RH, 2%RH?98.5%RH

         Open mode: ambient temperature

Testing Gases: Oxygen, Nitrogen or carbon dioxide

Air Source Pressure: 0.4MPa?0.6 MPa

Specimen Size: Closed mode: max. out diameter is less than ?114mm, height is less than 360 mm; min. inner diameter of bottle mouth is 8mm; max. out diameter is less than 50mm (also customization)

Open mode: max. size is no less than?195mm

Dimensions: 670 mm(L)× 490 mm(B)× 653 mm(H)

 PERME is one of the product brands of Labthink Instruments CO., Ltd.

  Further information please feel free to contact Shirley Wu via trade2@labthink.cn, skype:shirley-labthink, MSN:shirleywu_labthink@hotmail.com or (tel)0086-531-85068709.

About Labthink:

  Labthink, the excellent provider of testing instruments and testing services, is devoted to provide most excellent and complete quality control solutions for pharmaceutical, foodstuff, cosmetics, packaging, printing, adhesive, automotive, petrochemistry, environment, biology, new energy, construction, aviation and electronic industries worldwide.

Article from articlesbase.com

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Benefits of Using Plastic Packaging Materials For Every Delivery You Send

Benefits of Using Plastic Packaging Materials For Every Delivery You Send

Amongst all of the packaging materials accessible available in the market, plastic packaging materials are among the most widely used of them all. This is due to numerous causes, probably the most outstanding one being their durability. Plastic packaging materials are recognized to final a protracted time. They are guaranteed to have the ability to face up to massive quantities of stress and strain which is why it’s ideal for almost all heavy responsibility purposes.
One other thing is that plastic packaging materials have the ability to withstand harsh temperatures like intense heat and cold. This makes it perfect for packing food products and conserving them for storage. Even if you take them with you once you journey, your plastic packaging will likely be sure to be able to withstand any conditions.
In addition to this, plastic packaging materials are sometimes proof against water, making them ideally suited for retaining important documents. People would often keep their office papers and essential information inside plastic packaging materials and keep them in a safe location. One really by no means knows when a disaster would possibly hit. Flood and rain is usually the principle culprits of causing vital papers to get wet.
Its durability additionally comes in handy for buying and groceries. Its durable materials can handle even the hardest tin cans and bottles. Plastic packaging materials will never break and trigger your merchandise to fall apart.
Most of all, plastic packaging materials are very handy to use. You may pull one out of your storage and put your things inside it without any hassles. Along with this, you possibly can reuse them time and again for different purposes. Plastic packaging materials are very recyclable.
You should also needless to say plastic packaging materials must be disposed of properly they’re now not needed. Since supplies resembling this decompose very slowly, you must ensure that to eliminate them within the correct manner.
Shameka N. Bochner

If you would like more information in regard to Plastic Packaging Materials, swing by the Writer’s web site unhesitatingly.

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Biodegredable Plastics – Transgenic Plants Providing a Solution

Biodegredable Plastics – Transgenic Plants Providing a Solution

BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS

– TRANSGENIC PLANTS PROVIDING A SOLUTION        

                   Almost every product we buy most of the food we eat and many of the liquids we drink come encased in plastic packaging, which provides excellent protection for the product. It is cheap to manufacture and seems to last forever. Lasting forever, however, is proving to be a major environmental problem. Plastics are manufactured from numerous non-renewable resources like natural gas, coal, and oil. Plastics cannot be degraded easily in the natural environment due to their long polymer molecules which are too large and too tightly bound.                                                              

                  A type of sturdy and hard plastic is made with a molecule known as Bisphenol A, BPA. BPA like many other man made chemicals is now detectable in most people’s blood streams and could cause dangerous hormonal changes in children. BPA may tend to cause cancer, early puberty, obesity and even attention deficit disorder.

                 To overcome this problem BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS have been developed which are made from renewable resources, such as plants. Biodegradable plastics are made with plant-based materials and result in 15% less carbon emission. Infact biodegradable plastics have not been successful in replacing the wide spread use of traditional petrochemical plastics.

The following are few items and the time required for their decomposition,

 Tin cans- 50 to 100 years

Aluminum Cans- 80 to 100 years

Glass Bottles- 1 million years

Newspapers- 25 to 50 years

 Polystyrene- 1000’s of years

Plastic bags- 400 years

So now we know the raising alarm being caused in the environment by the use of plastics. But a solution is always there,

 “Green Film” Plastic Bags and Products- 9 months to 5 years .

                The plastics that are decomposed in the natural environment are known as the “biodegradable plastics”. (‘Biodegradable’ means that a substance can naturally decompose with the help of micro organisms and will not persist in the environment beyond a certain period of time). The chemical bonds of biodegradable compounds are easily destroyed by a variety of bacteria over a small period of time to facilitate their decomposition. As early as in the year 1926, Lemoigne managed to isolate the first of the polyhydroxyalkanoates – polyhydroxybutyrate (a homopolymer whose building unit is the 3-hydroxybutyric acid) from the Bacillus megaterium bacterium. At the end of the 1950s, the presence of the polyhydroxybutyrate was confirmed as an energy and carbon source and storage in many other bacteria. Many species of bacteria accumulate polyhydroxyalkonoates as energy storage compounds, some of the PHA polymers are commercially valuable as biodegradable plastics.

                 Polyhyroxybutyrate is a PHA produced in Ralstonia eutropha via three enzyme bio synthetic pathway consisting of ? – ketothiolase, aceto acetyl Co-A reductase, and PHB synthase. PHB synthase production in plants was first demonstrated in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. Polyhydroxy alkanoates (PHAs), e.g., polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), are synthesized from acetyl-CoA used as precursor, and are used for the synthesis of biodegradable plastics with thermoplastic properties. At present, PHAs are produced by bacterial fermentation, and the cost of biodegradable plastic is substantially higher than that of synthetic plastics.

                  Attempts are being made to produce PHAs in transgenic plants to reduce the cost. Genes encoding the two enzymes, aceto-acetyl-CoA reductase (PhbB) and PHB synthase (phbC), involved in the PHB synthesis from the precursor acetyl-CoA have been transferred from the bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus and expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. When the two enzymes were targeted into the plastids, PHB accumulated in leaves. PHB production by transgenic plants provides an example of a novel compound synthesized in plants.

 Standards that certify biodegradability and compostability,

 Following international organizations have established standards and testing methods for compostability: American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM ASTM 6400-99

 European Standardization Committee (CEN) EN13432

International Standards Organization (ISO) ISO14855 (only for biodegradation)

German Institute for Standardization (DIN) DIN V49000

                The ASTM, CEN and DIN standards specify the criteria for biodegradation, disintegration and eco-toxicity for a plastic to be called compostable. While ISO 14855 makes no stipulations regarding disintegrations or toxins remaining.

                Dealing with plastic wastes has taken on significance not far short of ultimate redemption. Developing biodegradable plastics is just one of the solutions to the existing problem. Its our responsibility to remember that by the uncontrolled use of plastics we are contributing our share to a deadly pollution whose ill effects are irreversible and capable of reaching out to numerous generation to come.

 REFERENCES 

1. Nature journal, Nature Biotechnology.

2.Crop science journal. 

3. India Together, Science and environment and environmental plastics.

4. Australian Academy of Science.

5. Eco Greenwares.

6. abc NEWS – Health

7. Institute of science and society

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This is our submission for the 2008 Stanford Innovation Tournament. We chose to use the secret item (plastic water bottles) as plant pots. We created a facebook group and set up a station on campus where people could plant seeds in soil and take home a free plastic water bottle plant pot! We want people to take pictures of their flowers and upload them to the facebook group!

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Fair trade gifts the recycled way

Fair trade gifts the recycled way

Consumers are encouraged to recycle just about anything possible including the packaging by-products of our weekly food shop such as tins, bottles, plastic containers and foil. Local councils provide some of us with a confusing range of coloured bins for an array of household refuse and most supermarkets have recycling centres for glass, foil and paper to cloths, plastic bottles, tin cans and cardboard.

My own understanding is quite a simplistic one. There has now become such a massive drive for recycling and does seem to make perfect sense to re-use materials, reforming them to make more bottles, tins, paper and plastic. My washing up ritual now involves religiously washing out all the various packaging items because I have a sense of duty to make a contribution to preserving our planet’s natural resources.

Following in the same vein, there are a number of recycled substrates used across the fair trade giftware sector too. At the heart of fair trade lies the use of sustainable materials like wood and jute as well as recycled materials such as tin, paper or even shells! So fair trade products can sit comfortably within the eco-friendly realm.

In addition to this, the main point of the fair trade movement is to produce its goods within the ethical framework of fair wages and working conditions.

Both aspects encompass the fair trade ethos helping to make the movement synonymous with eco-friendly and ethically produced products from consumables to wood carvings, jute rugs, bags, picture frames to paper and tin.

The first example I would like to share with you is the special range of mussel shell picture frames. I was blown away by their beauty, innovation and craftsmanship. A little fishing village in Bali have found an ingenious way to re-use the discarded mussel shells. The first thing is they have not just glued an arrangement of grey mussel shells to a wooden picture frame. Instead, they have carefully cut away the grey outer layer of the shell to reveal a stunning opalescent bluey green shell underneath. They have then carefully created a contrasting symmetrical pattern of engraved ridges which are shown off when the light catches the various angles.

This kind of craft technique with shells is also used to inlay plates and bowls giving a montage of green and blue tones like fish scales, creating objects of great beauty and skill. The delicate calming green colour of these beautiful shells resonates with the serenity and tranquillity of Indonesia made by its native people.

Mussel shells have also been used to make an almost ethereal cubed tealight holder by breaking them up and setting in an opaque resin. When the tealight is lit, the shapes and colours of the shell pieces become transparent against the glow of the flame.

While on the subject of fair trade tealight holders, there are some fantastic holders carefully handcrafted from recycled tin collected from factories within the village vicinity. The scraps certainly have been put to good use in creating something functional for the consumer. The designs are quirky and are predominantly aimed to appeal to the western and commercial markets rather than their own.

Examples include tin tealight holders that are brightly hand painted to depict roosters, flowers, butterflies, fish, hedgehogs, frogs, chickens and even Christmas trees. So something for everyone!

As well as being made from recycled materials, fair trade gifts are also made from sustainable materials such as jute prolific in India. Jute provides a plentiful resource of natural material for a wide range of products. The material can be brought cheaply and weaved into mats, rugs, bags and belts then sold on to make a healthy profit margin.

Since jute is a natural fibre it is 100% biodegradable enhancing further the advantage of buying this kind of natural product. By using this kind of material, we are helping to cut down on wastage otherwise accumulated by the notorious plastic or man-made materials.

Other examples include recycled sari material which is re-stitched onto the covers of fair trade notebooks, jewellery boxes or bags to create colour and dimension sometimes embellished with sequins.

So if you stumble across a range of fair trade gifts you have found something rather special. You have peace of mind knowing its products are made from sustainable and natural materials and have been produced entirely through ethical means.

Hand made fair trade gifts by Belinda Bryant. Fair trade gifts for everyone can be found at Indigo Ocean Trading.

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The Advantage of Glass Bottles Over the Plastic Ones

The Advantage of Glass Bottles Over the Plastic Ones

The environmental concerns of the world we are living in have determined the replacement of glass with other recyclable materials. The most relevant case is the replacement of glass bottles with plastic pets; the latter have the advantage of being a lot lighter, easier to manufacture and to recycle, not to mention that the costs of plastic are infinitely lower than those of glass. Hence, little by little the use of glass bottles has entered a descending path; nevertheless, they cannot be eliminated from the storing or packaging process of many types of goods. Yes, Coke-Cola or Pepsi can be bottled in pets, milk can be sold in cartons, and beer in tin cans, but a good Bordeaux wine will never be stored in plastic.

The advantage of glass bottles over the plastic ones is the quality of the material. Despite the long-use tradition, glass has the purity of structure that makes any interaction with the stored liquid impossible. Plastic on the other hand is known to alter the properties of certain beverages because of the chemical reactions that appear in time between the artificial structure and the possible acids in the beverage. Whiskey, wine, vodka or any other kind of alcoholic drink any better stored in glass bottles than in any other type of container.

Glass bottles also have the great advantage of preserving a certain temperature for a longer period of time. They do not dilate when it is too warm or shrink when exposed to lower temperatures. Depending on the type of beverage they store, glass bottles can be thicker or thinner. Large international companies that are considered brand names, usually have customized, possibly etched glass bottles. This is usually the case with whiskey brands like Jack Daniel’s, Jim Bean, Teacher’s and so on. Such glass bottles are usually thicker than those used for wine storing, as wine manufacturers mainly choose slender looking models that suggest taste refinement.

The recycling of glass bottles is required by law, and the separation of the glass residues in households is essential for the process. Glass bottles do not affect the structure of the environment by their chemical composition, their only problem comes from the fact that they remain in the same form for millions of years, there will actually be no change in their structure. The necessity of recycling comes from the fact that a huge quantity of glass bottles are produced and deposited as garbage every year, which only leads to an overwhelmingly high pressure on the environment.

Muna wa Wanjiru Has Been Researching and Reporting on Stained Glass for Years. For More Information on Glass bottles, Visit His Site at GLASS BOTTLESI Will Also Highly Appreciate Your Views On Glass bottles At My Blog here

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